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SYNOVIAL FLUID

This topic has been asked in Physiology many times , therefore I will be mentioning the highlights here :

It is an ultradialysate of plasma secreted by synovial capillaries and modified by the secretory activities of type B synoviocytes

These B cells serete Hyaluronic acid – protein complex that gives the synovial fluid its viscosity and lubricating properties

Colour = pale yellow , clear

Location = intra articular

pH = 7.3 to 7.6

Lacks fibrinogen and thus does not clot on its own

String Phenomenon = it is sufficiently viscous that droplets expelled from a needle tip fall in a long string.

Lab . analysis = sterile culture

Specific gravity = 1.008 – 1.015

WBC’s = <100/mm3

Protein content = 20 – 200 mg/ml

No crystals 

If WBC content of the synovial fluid increases,  it is indicative of different types of disorders as follows :

WBC Content Disorders of Joint
<200 NORMAL
200 – 300 NON INFLAMMATORY (osteoarthritis)
2000 – 75,000 INFLAMMATORY (Rhematoid arthritis and Gout)
>1,00,000 PURULENT / INFECTIOUS (Septic arthritis)

By Dr. Tushar Mehta

MBBS , DNB (Ortho), MNAMS, PGDCR, http://www.facebook.com/orthopaedicsplus.in

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