Varus is defined as :
a. Distal limb pointing towards midline in the saggital plane
b. Distal limb pointing towards midline in the coronal plane
c. Distal limb pointing away from midline in the coronal plane
d. Distal limb pointing away from midline in the coronal plane
Frontal / Coronal plane:
The frontal (or coronal) plane refers to the front half of the body.
Bone and joint deformities that occur in the frontal / coronal plane include:
These deformities occur mainly at the level of the knee.
Varus knees produce an “O” -shape to the legs and valgus knees result in an “X” -shape to the
knees. (just to make you understand )
These deformities occur to the hand or to the forefoot.
Hand supination corresponds to a varus where the hand turns upwards. Pronation, as in seizing or
grasping, occurs when the hand turns downwards, as in an extreme valgus motion.
Sagittal plane :
The sagittal plane separates the left and right sides of the body from top to bottom and from front
Deformities in the sagittal plane include:
Flexion/extension : These deformities apply to joints and involve the position of two
Flexion deformities describe backward bending (or flexion), while extensor deformities describe
forward bending or extension of the joint.
These deformities occur within a single bone
Procurvatum describes backward bending of the bone or flexion, and recurvatum forward bending
of the bone
The transverse plane is defined as that occurring horizontally across the body.
In this plane, the following deformities can occur:
This rotation involves two different anatomical elements; for example, two different bones, such
as the femora, can turn with respect to the pelvis in an internal or external rotation.
Torsion is a rotatory motion within a single bone between its two extremities. For example,
excessive femoral torsion means that the torsion or rotation between the upper and the lower
extremities of the femur is greater than the normal range