AIIMS Expected


1. Gallow’s Traction – Fracture shaft of Femur used as an Overhead Skin Traction in children less than 2 years

2. In fracture Calcaneum Bohler’s angle is reduced and Crucial angle of Gissane is increased

3. Bankart’s lesion – Avulsion fracture of anteroinferior glenoidal labrum

4. A posterior inferior labral tear, also known as a Kim lesion, or a Reverse Bankart lesion

5. The triquetrum is the second most commonly fractured carpal (scaphoid is first) … !!

6. Keinbock’s disease is AVN of Lunate . Preiser’s disease is AVN of the scaphoid

7. Transcervical fractures of NOF are, by definition, intracapsular.
They have a poor capacity for healing because: (1)
by tearing the retinacular vessels the injury deprives
the head of its main blood supply; (2) intra-articular
bone has only a flimsy periosteum and no contact with
soft tissues which could promote callus formation; and
(3) synovial fluid prevents clotting of the fracture

8. Adams Disease — avascular necrosis (AVN) of the medial epicondyle of the humerus

9. Deep peroneal nerve is called “nervi hesitans”

10. The metaphysis is commonest site of osteomyelitis, because-
· Is highly vascular
· Has a hair pin like arrangement of capillaries
· Has sluggish blood flow
· has relatively fewer phagocytic cells than the physis or diaphysis, allowing infection to occur more easily in this area
· thin cortex

11. Did you know —
The most common site of Mandibular Fracture is Neck of Condyle

12. Pirani Scoring —
Valuable scoring to predict the outcome of CTEV treatment.
Each component may score 0, 0.5 or 1
Hind foot contracture score (HCFS):
Posterior crease
Empty heel
Rigid equinus
Mid foot contracture score (MFCS):
Medial crease
Curvature of lateral border
Position of head of talus

13. Did you know —
The most common cause of Congenital Pseudoarthrosis is Idiopathic followed by NF.
The most common cause of Acquired Pseudoarthrosis is Non Union of a fracture.

14. Bulbocavernosus reflex
The bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) or “Osinski reflex” is a polysynaptic reflex that is useful in testing for spinal shock and gaining information about the state of spinal cord injuries (SCI).
Bulbocavernosus is an older term for bulbospongiosus, thus this reflex may also be referred to as the bulbospongiosus reflex.
The test involves monitoring internal/external anal sphincter contraction in response to squeezing the glans penis or clitoris, or tugging on an indwelling Foley catheter.
This reflex can also be tested electrophysiologically, by stimulating the penis or vulva and recording from the anal sphincter. This test modality is used in intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring to verify function of sensory and motor sacral roots as well as the conus medullaris.
The reflex is spinal mediated and involves S2-S4. The absence of the reflex in a person with acute paralysis from trauma indicates spinal shock whereas the presence of the reflex would indicate spinal cord severance.
Typically this is one of the first reflexes to return after spinal shock. Lack of motor and sensory function after the reflex has returned indicates complete SCI.
Absence of this reflex in instances where spinal shock is not suspected could indicate a lesion or injury of the conus medullaris or sacral nerve roots.

15. Genetics of some common Orthopaedic Pathologies ::
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by a defect in Type I collagen (COL1A1 and COL1A2) that causes abnormal cross-linking via a glycine substitution in the procollagen molecule. This defect leads to decreased collagen secretion, bone fragility, “wormian” bones, short stature, scoliosis, tooth defects, hearing defects, and ligamentous laxity.
Fibrous dysplasia is caused by a germ line defect in the Gsa protein.
Scurvy is caused by a vitamin C deficiency that causes a decrease in chondroitin sulfate synthesis and subsequent defect in intracellular hydroxylation of collagen peptides.
Diastrophic dysplasia is caused by a mutation of a gene coding for a sulfate transport protein.
Ochronosis (alkaptonuria) is caused by a defect in the homogentisic acid oxidase system.

16. Did you know —
Tom Smith Arthritis is Septic Arthritis of Infancy which usually occurs in neonatal period due to spread from umbilical sepsis.

17. Did you know —
Septic arthritis is considered to be a surgical emergency and arthrotomy should be done as soon as possible.
But if it’s a Gonococcal septic arthritis , drainage is not required usually and response to penicillin is excellent. Infact penicillin is the DOC for Gonococcal Arthritis.

18. Theories of Origin –

Intrauterine Trauma
Birth Fracture
Metabolic Bone Disease
Vascular Malformation
50 % of cases of Anterolateral Bowing and Pseudoarthrosis are associated with NF 1


Dr. Tushar Mehta


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